Dictionary | Dr. Hakan Özörnek



The absence of menstruation.


The absence of ovulation. It doesn't have to accompany amenorrhea.


The absence of sperm in the ejaculate.

Corpus Luteum:

A specialized gland on the surface of the ovary during ovulation. It produces the progesterone hormone in the second half of the menstrual cycle, preparing the uterine surface for the implantation of fertilized eggs.

Ectopic Pregnancy:

The occurrence of pregnancy when the fertilized egg implants outside the uterine cavity (fallopian tubes, ovaries, abdominal cavity).

Embryo Transfer:

The placement of embryos resulting from in vitro fertilization (IVF) into the woman's uterus.


The early stage of fetal development, from the fertilization of the egg by sperm to the eighth week of pregnancy.

Endocrine System:

A gland system encompassing the ovaries, testicles, adrenal glands, thyroid, pituitary gland, and thymus.


A mucous membrane lining the inner surface of the uterus.


A coiled system extending in front and behind the testicular system in males. It contains a highly coiled canal, storing, nourishing, and maturing sperm for several months.

Fallopian Tubes:

A pair of narrow tubes carrying the egg from the ovary to the uterus.


The process of sperm penetrating the egg and the genetic material merging, leading to embryo formation.


The term given to the baby from the ninth week of gestation until birth.

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH):

A hormone produced and released from the pituitary gland. It stimulates the maturation of follicles in the ovaries for ovulation.


A fluid-filled sac in the ovary carrying the egg. It nourishes the egg and releases it during ovulation by rupturing.


Male and female reproductive cells, namely sperm and egg.


Hormones capable of stimulating the production of sperm in males and eggs in females.


The visualization of the inside of the uterus using an optical instrument.


Chemical substances released by endocrine glands, circulating in the blood, and affecting various areas of the body.

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG):

A hormone released from the placenta during pregnancy. It prolongs the lifespan of the corpus luteum and ensures the continuation of progesterone production, confirming pregnancy test results.


The lodging of the fertilized egg in the endometrium of the uterus.

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF):

The process of combining eggs and sperm outside the human body in a laboratory to achieve fertilization. The resulting fertilized embryos are then placed into the uterus.


The inability of a couple to conceive after a year of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse, or the inability to carry a pregnancy to term.


A method of achieving pregnancy by introducing sperm into the female uterus.


The formation of a new life resulting from the fertilization of the female egg by male sperm.


A method of freezing and storing embryos.


The examination of ovaries and fallopian tubes using an optical instrument inserted through a small incision below the navel.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH):

Synthesized and released from the anterior pituitary gland. An increase in LH induces the release of the egg during the mid-menstrual cycle.


The determination of the shape and dimensions of sperm.


The ratio of motile sperm to the total sperm count.


A condition where there is a lower than normal sperm count in the male ejaculate.

Oocyte Retrieval:

The collection of eggs from ovarian follicles. A needle is inserted into the follicle, and the fluid and eggs are aspirated with the needle and placed in culture dishes with culture medium.


An egg.


One of the female reproductive organs, there are two ovaries. They produce the female hormones estrogen and progesterone and are responsible for egg development.

Ovarian Insufficiency:

The failure of the ovaries to respond to gonadotropic hormones. It involves the absence of follicular tissue, either genetically or postmenopausal.


The release of a mature egg from the surface of the ovary.


Released during follicle development in the ovary, it is monitored during ovulation induction to track follicular development.


Primarily produced in the ovaries, it continues to be produced from puberty to menopause. It is responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS):

Many cysts are present in the ovaries. There is an imbalance in the amounts of LH and FSH.


The fertilization of an egg by more than one sperm.


A hormone released by the corpus luteum after ovulation. It is a hormone that supports pregnancy and is produced by the placenta throughout pregnancy.

Semen Analysis (Spermogram):

The determination of the count, shape, and motility of fresh sperm under a microscope


The term given to the sperm and fluid that make up the ejaculate during orgasm.


The cervix, the lower part of the uterus. This area protrudes into the vagina and widens during childbirth to allow the passage of the baby.

Sperm Morphology:

The examination of the shape of a sperm cell.

Sperm Motility:

The examination of the ability of sperm to move.

Sperm Washing:

A technique for separating sperm from seminal fluid.


The male reproductive cell.


One of the male reproductive organs, there are two testes. Located in a sac, they produce the male reproductive hormone testosterone and sperm.


The male reproductive hormone.


A device that allows us to visualize internal reproductive organs and the developing fetus.


The womb, a muscular reproductive organ that protects and nourishes the embryo's development.


The canal connecting the cervix and uterus to the external female reproductive organs.


The dilation of testicular veins. Sometimes a cause of male infertility.


The determination of whether sperm is alive or not.




The early developmental stage of an embryo.

Zona Pellucida:

The membrane covering the egg. Sperm penetrates this membrane to facilitate fertilization. It is necessary for the embryo to shed this membrane for implantation in the uterus.

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